General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) 1994

World Trade Organization

The Marrakesh Agreement established the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1994. The Marrakesh Act opened the WTO Agreement for acceptance by the contracting parties to the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) 1994, which incorporates provisions of the GATT 1947. The GATT 1947 includes measures for national treatment, most-favored-nation treatment, as well as anti-dumping and countervailing duties.  Significant to global health, the GATT  incorporates two exceptions that may be exercised by Member States: (1) Article XX(b) General Exceptions provides Contracting Parties with the flexibility to adopt and enforce measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life, or health. (2) Article XXI(b)(iiI) Security Exceptions allows Contracting Parties to deviate from the agreements of the GATT for the protection of "essential security interest" in times of an "emergency of international relations."