World Health Organization (WHO) Instruments
International Health Regulations (2005)
First adopted by the World Health Assembly in 1969, the International Health Regulations initially focused on just three diseases, and has since expanded to now account for public health risks associated with biological, chemical, radiological or nuclear origin. The IHR is the only binding instrument regarding international disease prevention and control. It defines a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), and provides the WHO Director General with a decision instrument (Appendix II), to declare a PHEIC.
Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel
The WHO’s Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel May 2010 is a voluntary code that provides ethical principles applicable to international recruitment of health personnel. This Code is intended as a guide for the Member States, designed to strengthen the health systems of developing countries while promoting fair labor practices for all health personnel. Additionally, Member States should work towards establishing effective health workforce planning, education and training , and retention strategies that will reduce their need to recruit migrant health personnel. The Code should be used as a guide when entering into bilateral, regional, and multilateral arrangements to promote international cooperation in the recruitment of health personnel.
Constitution of the World Health Organization
The Constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) establishes the principles basic to the health and security of all peoples such as; the healthy development of the child, the extension of the benefit of medical knowledge to all peoples, and that Governments have a responsibility for the health of their peoples. The Objective of the WHO is to attain the highest possible level of health for all peoples, which may be achieved by, among other things, the promotion of co-operation with specialized agencies and the scientific and professional communities, and the establishment of international standards with respect to food, biological, pharmaceutical and similar products.
Pan American Sanitary Code
Signed ad referendum by 18 countries of the Americas in November of 1924, the Pan American Sanitary Code (the Code) represents decades of international initiatives aimed at prolonging people's lives. The object of the code, inter alia, is to prevent the international spread of communicable infections, stimulate the mutual interchange of information which may be of value in improving public health, and standardizing measures employed at places of entry, for the prevention of the introduction and spread of communicable diseases. The Code obligates member states to report to other members if any of a number of enumerated diseases are identified within the member state, and the Code also adopts international classifications of the causes of death used in the interchange of mortality and morbidity reports.